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Rôle de l'intelligence psychologique dans la prise en charge psychothérapeutique de la dépression

Résumé : Un intérêt croissant a été accordé dernièrement, notamment dans le cadre de la psychologie positive, aux ressources psychologiques et au caractère positif. L’objectif de cette étude est donc d’apporter un éclairage sur certains des facteurs permettant aux patients souffrant de dépression d’exploiter ou non leurs forces de signature (il s’agit des traits de personnalité positifs et moralement valorisés, les plus prédominants chez un individu). L’argumentation est ici dirigée spécifiquement sur l’intelligence psychologique ainsi que sur l’implication des proches dans la détection des forces de signature. Trente-trois participants ont été inclus dans cette étude et répartis en deux groupes : un groupe clinique, composé de 19 patients (moyenne d’âge 46,56 ; σ = 14,34) atteints de troubles dépressifs (BDI ≥ 16) et un second groupe, composé de 14 personnes (moyenne d’âge 34,79 ans ; σ = 16,99) de l’entourage de ces patients. Les proches des patients qui ont accepté d’intégrer cette étude font partie du groupe « entourage » et ont rempli les mêmes questionnaires d’auto-évaluation que les patients. Les résultats montrent que l’intelligence psychologique (IP) est impliquée dans la détection de nos propres forces de signature et cette détection des forces est liée à leur connaissance et à leur utilisation. L’IP joue également un rôle dans la reconnaissance des forces de signature d’autrui, ce qui nous ouvre une perspective intéressante quant à la possibilité d’impliquer les proches dans le travail de détection des forces de signature des patients. Enfin, les résultats indiquent que la dépression est liée à un plus faible niveau d’IP et de connaissance des forces de signature. / Objectives A growing interest in human sciences has emerged with respect to positive psychological resources and signature strengths within the new field of positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Peterson and Seligman, 2004). Positive psychology (PP) is the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits and the institutions that facilitate their development. It aims to broaden the focus of psychology beyond suffering and psychopathology in order to promote well-being by building strengths and not just by correcting an individual's weaknesses. The purpose of this study is to better understand the role of the psychological resources which may be involved in the identification and use of positive attributes, especially of character strengths and signature strengths, which are considered as adaptive and related to well-being. Psychological mindedness (PM) may play an important role in the well-being as well as in the identification of character and signature strengths and facilitate their use in everyday life as it involves a degree of access to one's feelings; a willingness to try to understand oneself and others; an interest in one's own motivations, thoughts, feelings and behaviors as well as those of others; and an ability to change (Conte et al., 1996). For these reasons, the study focused mainly on the use of this psychological resource. Therefore, it is expected that PM also promotes the ability to perceive one's character and signature strengths as well as those of other people. Furthermore, to date, few studies have examined the impact that depression can have on the identification of positive attributes. It is indeed probable that people suffering from depressive disorders find it difficult to identify their strengths due to negative self-image. Method Thirty-three participants from different mental health treatment centers were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: a clinical group consisting of 19 patients with depressive disorders (mean age 46.56 years; σ = 14.34; BDI ≥ 16) and a second group consisting of 14 people who were friends and family members of the patients, the “support” group (mean age 34.79 years; σ = 16.99). Patients completed self-assessment measures of character and signature strengths, psychological mindedness and depression. The friends and family of the patients who agreed to participate in the study formed the “support” group and completed the same questionnaires with the exception of the depression scale. In addition, each patient was asked to assess their own signature strengths and then to estimate the signature strengths of their respective friend or family member using a questionnaire. Each friend or family member also performed the same task. Results In the clinical group, the degree to which character strengths were present was found to be positively correlated with the ability to use them (r = 0.66; P < 0.05) and also with the level of PM (r = 0.49; P < 0.05). In the “support” group, a positive correlation between the degree to which signature strengths were present and the level of their use was found (r = 0.63; P < 0.05). The level of knowledge of these strengths showed a high positive correlation with firstly, their level of use (r = 0.85; P < 0.05) and secondly, the degree to which they were present (r = 0.78; P < 0.05). For patients and their respective friend or family member (n = 28), the total number of signature strengths determined in common was positively correlated with the level of global PM (r = 0.45; P < 0.02). Furthermore, the level of depression was negatively correlated with the level of PM (r = −0.53, P < 0.05) and with the level of knowledge of one's signature strengths (r = −0.55; P < 0.05). Conclusion Psychological mindedness is involved in the detection of one's own strengths and this detection of signature strengths is related to an individual's knowledge of them and to their use. These are particularly important in positive psychotherapy, which aims to help people use their character and signature strengths. PM also plays a role in recognizing the signature strengths of others. Finally, the results suggest a negative impact of depression on PM and on the identification of one's signature strengths. It is thus important to focus on these aspects from the beginning of therapy.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 29, 2017 - 4:47:30 PM
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Margaux Denhier, Antonia Csillik. Rôle de l'intelligence psychologique dans la prise en charge psychothérapeutique de la dépression. Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, Elsevier Masson, 2016, 26 (4), pp.162-169. ⟨10.1016/j.jtcc.2016.06.004⟩. ⟨hal-01550599⟩

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