Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East

Iosif Lazaridis 1, 2 Dani Nadel 3 Gary Rollefson 4 Deborah Merrett 5 Nadin Rohland 1 Swapan Mallick 1, 2, 6 Daniel Fernandes 7, 8 Mario Novak 7, 9 Beatriz Gamarra 7 Kendra Sirak 7, 10 Sarah Connell 7 Kristin Stewardson 1, 6 Eadaoin Harney 1, 6, 11 Qiaomei Fu 1, 12, 13 Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes 14 Eppie R. Jones 15 Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg György Lengyel 16 Fanny Bocquentin 17 Boris Gasparian 18 Janet Monge 19 Michael Gregg 19 Vered Eshed 20 Ahuva-Sivan Mizrahi 20 Christopher Meiklejohn 21 Fokke Gerritsen 22 Luminita Bejenaru 23 Matthias Blüher 24 Archie Campbell 25 Gianpiero Cavalleri 26 David Comas 27 Philippe Froguel 28, 29 Edmund Gilbert 26 Shona M. Kerr 25 Peter Kovacs 30 Johannes Krause 31 Darren Mcgettigan 7 Michael Merrigan 32 D. Andrew Merriwether 33 Seamus O'Reilly 34 Martin B. Richards 35 Ornella Semino 36 Michel Shamoon-Pour 33 Gheorghe Stefanescu 37 Michael Stumvoll 30 Anke Tonjes 30 Antonio Torroni 36 James F Wilson 38, 39 Loic Yengo 28 Nelli A. Hovhannisyan 40 Nick Patterson 2 Ron Pinhasi 7 David Reich 1, 2, 6
17 Ethnologie préhistorique
ArScAn - Archéologies et Sciences de l'Antiquité
Abstract : We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000 and 1,400 bc, from Natufian hunter–gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a ‘Basal Eurasian’ lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter–gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter–gatherers of Europe to greatly reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those of Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.
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Journal articles
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Iosif Lazaridis, Dani Nadel, Gary Rollefson, Deborah Merrett, Nadin Rohland, et al.. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, 536 (7617), pp.419-424. ⟨10.1038/nature19310⟩. ⟨hal-02014294⟩

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