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Contribution de l'archéozoologie à la caracterisation des modalités d'occupation des sites alpins et jurassiens, de l'épipaleolithique au néolithique

Abstract : Our paper presents a critical review of the archaeozoological data for the Northern Alps and Jura in order to characterize the occupation patterns of the sites and to enlight the modalities of human settlement and exploitation territories frorn the Epipaleolithic to the Early Neolithic (ca. 12,000-6,500 BP uncal.). The comparisons of the composition of the faunal spectra by chronocultural stage show more pronounced contrasts in the early phase than in the Mesolithic. Alpine species are represented in sites located in lower altitudes than during the Mesolithic. It is argued that the exploitation of such species as Marmota marmota or Lepus timidus, that are no longer attested in mesolithic assemblage of mountainous sites, if pursued, implies a change, at least in the mobility pattern of the human groups. Assumptions are presented relatively to the frequentation of high altitudes territories where sites are known but without faunal material. The analysis of seasonality data show no significative change during the whole sequence. No clear differences appear in the seasons of occupation between low altitude sites (under 700 m) and mountainous sites (up to 1,700 rn ), although indices of winter occupations are not attested in the later. The anatomical distribution for the main species, wild (reddeer, ibex) and domestic (cattle, caprines), from sites of different periods and contexts are then comparecl. Two significant types of curves have been displayed that contrast most of the Epipaleolithic et Mesolithic assemblages with the Neolithic ones.
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Anne Bridault, Louis Chaix. Contribution de l'archéozoologie à la caracterisation des modalités d'occupation des sites alpins et jurassiens, de l'épipaleolithique au néolithique. L'Europe des derniers chasseurs : épipaléolithique et mésolithique : actes du 5e Colloque international UISPP, Editions du CTHS, 1999. ⟨hal-02364712⟩

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