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Les antécédents orientaux des stucs architecturaux

Abstract : Stucco was virtually unknown in the Pre-Classical Near East where, from the Neolithic onwards, walls were covered with plaster (djuss), lime or some kind of clay, intended either to be left as such, or painted with colour, decorated with figurative motifs or imitations of wood or stone, even modelled at times. Indeed, from the 4th millennium onwards, particularly in Uruk, various methods were used to fix the, often coloured, embossed decoration to the mud brick walls: mosaics of stone or terracotta cones, then, in the 2nd millennium, decorative terracotta "nails" and tiles, the latter being glazed and fixed with a knob. To ensure the cohesion between the relief and the wall surface, the most refined method was to transfer the design onto the brick itself first by "sculpting" on curvilinear edge bricks to obtain twisted or palm-tree trunk semi-columns (22nd-18th cent.), then, from the 15th cent. onwards by moulding, in relief on the facing edge, as many bricks (baked this time) as necessary to compose a figure. Later still, first monochrome then multicoloured glazing was added, which, by using the cloisonné technique, the Babylonians and even more so the Achaemenids elevated to the pinnacle of refinement, turning their decoration into a jewel and an architectonic element both real and illusionistic.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 9, 2020 - 5:12:48 PM
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Béatrice Muller. Les antécédents orientaux des stucs architecturaux. Syria. Archéologie, art et histoire, IFPO, 2019, Stucs d'Orient, Supplément V, pp.15-22. ⟨hal-03049184⟩

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